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Nature of Material: turquoise (TER-kwoyz) (also, turuqois) is a mineral species; tri- clinic crystal system; Chemical composition CuAl6 (P04) 4(OH) 65H2O

Appearance: Semi translucent to opaque light to medium blue, greenish blue to green; often mottled, and may show dark splotches or veins of matrix 

Phenomena: none
Variety and Trade Names
Persian - intense, even medium blue, with low porosity, allowing a good polish; considered the finest quality American or 
Mexican - light blue, greenish blue to bluish green; it is somewhat porous 
Egyptian - greenish blue to yellowish green 
Spider web - turquoise with matrix in web-like patterns (Tibet) 

Typical Size Range: large stones common 
Typical Cutting Styles: cabochon, carvings, beads, inlays
Optic Character: AGG (DR) 
Refractive Index: 1.610-1.650, usually 1.61 spot reading 
Birefringence: usually not detectable 
Specific Gravity: 2.76 (+ .14, -.36) 
Polish Luster: waxy to vitreous 
Fracture: conchoidal or granular, depending on porosity 
Luster: waxy to dull 
Cleavage: none 

Identifying Characteristics 
often has matrix 
Hardness: 5-6 
Toughness: fine quality is fair to good; chalky untreated material is poor and easily fractures Stability: 

Availability: plentiful 
Public Recognition: well-known
Birthstone Designation
December, 5:00 am, Saturday, 11th wedding anniversary 

Major Source : Us. Others : Australia, Chile, china, Iran (Historical) Mexico 
Recommended Disclosures: Avoid heat and chemicals. Inform customers that perspiration, skin oils, and cosmetics may turn blue turquoise green. Advise about treatment.
The Meaning Of Turquoise

TURQUOISE- The stone of wisdom and spiritual journeys

Corresponding astrological sign : Sagittarius 5th Chakra. 
Vibrates to the numbers #4,#6, and#7 

Keywords: Protection, energy, wisdom,serenity, wholeness, self expression, creativity, peace of mind, emotional balance, good luck, spiritual grounding, honest communication, friendship, love and loyalty. Absorbs negativity. 

Metaphysical Properties: A truth stone, it symbolizes a time to be honest with yourself. Much will be gained when you become still, and see yourself as your truly are. This stone is a reminder to share your vision and WALK your TALK! The truth is very motivating to those ready to hear it.By doing so, you make it okay for them to believe and follow. This gem stone is a stone of self realization helping you to better understand yourself, your ideas and emotions.It is a wonderful aid in regards to any type of analytical thinking. Attunes the physical to the higher realms. Aligns all chakras, creating a clear channel for the nurturing and creative energy of this sacred stone. Like Amethyst, it protects and de-toxics from alcohol, poison, pollution, x-ray/sun radiation. Works well with Chrysocolla, best with Silver. Protects and blesses the user. One of the most versatile of the POWER STONES, which is why Native Americans honor it. Turquoise works at the throat Chakra enhancing communication skills Those seeking a profound healing of the spirit and soul should wear turquoise. Opens the heart Chakra forgiving/receiving. Ancient absorber of"negativity" Helps one develop natural powers. Excellent grounding stone. Excellent healing stone. Strengthens and calms the mind and body. Brings wisdom. Helps anorexia, headache, fear, etc. Throat, lungs, asthma,infections, teeth, TMJ, hearing, high blood pressure, creativity block,depression. Used for healing on every continent long before we has mass communication and radio waves.... Turquoise helps to ground the wandering wayward spirit, while keeping their connection to the infinite open. Many people who have a lot of energy avoid "grounding stones"because they think it will "clip their wings". But Turquoise will allow that energy path to remain open. In fact, some Native culturesheld the belief that by wearing it the human mind becomes one with theuniverse. Turquoise helps us communicate clearly what we want, and to then be able to communicate our desires to others in a way they can understand. Colors; blue to green.

Physical Healing Properties: Muscle tissue. Regeneration. Stress.Headaches. Enhances healing and immune function, Tones, strengthens entire body, aids tissue regeneration, circulation, lungs, respiratory system, heals stomach and gout problems, viral infections; creates warmth and relaxes cramps. General Gemstone Details One of the first gemstones to be mined, turquoise has long been prized for it's intense colors, which vary greatly from sky blue to green,depending on the quantities of iron and copper found in it. Turquoise is a complicated, persnickety gemstone. Just the right type of minerals must be in just the right place for a very very long time (millions of years) before turquoise is finally created. Egyptians prized Turquoise as a LifeStone. The oldest pieces of jewelry set with this gem are four bracelets found on the mummified arm of Queen Zar. She ruled in Egypt about 5500 BC. Highly revered in Tibet, a Turquoise stone was carried throughout one’s entire life. It was exchanged as currency& the finest stones were considered more valuable than gold.

Scientific Properties: Moh’s Hardness of 6 with a triclinic crystal structure. Copper is key to beginning the process of creating Turquoise. The mineral is introduced into host rocks byheated magma rising to the earth’s surface. Hydrothermal actions created by the heat of the magma will break down nearby feldspar, releasing aluminum.Phosphoric acids leach from apatite’s (rocks not usually found near copper deposits) leaving the needed phosphorus. Just getting past this complicated process will not be enough . . . the host stones must also stay above the water table for millions of years. As Mother Earth heaved & cooled, mountains rose, seas formed & disappeared, these deposits of copper, aluminum &phosphorus had to remain under great pressures & stay dry. Almost all Turquoise is found in areas with volcanic or thermal histories and the finest grades of the gem are found closest to the earth’s surface. The stone must be able to “dry out” inorder to maintain it’s hardness. Deeper deposits of Turquoise become softbecause of acids created as water percolates through the earth. One of the exceptions to this is the Lone Mountain Mine in Nevada. This rich deposit of Turquoise was sent deep intoMother Earth after seismic activity caused the deposit to fault. Turquoise is found around the world.Its history as a spiritual stone goes back over 7500 years. Persian Turquoise is considered some of the finest in the world (& some of the earliest mines). China, North & South America, Saudi Arabia, Tibet also have significant deposits of this gem. Virginia has an extremely rare Turquoise that forms in prismatic crystals. 

Mystical Properties:Turquoise is still a valued power stone. It will strengthen and align allof the Chakras; and it can be used to cleanse your energy centers. As a meditation tool, the gem can assist in clearing your mind, opening you to the Universal All. Use Turquoise to attune to the spiritual plane or provideprotection during vision quests or astral travel. Native Americans believed the stone brought protection to a rider upon a horse, and great protection in general,especially to turn away the evil eye. Called "sky stone" or"stone of heaven" by some Native Americans, the vibrations of turquoise can build a spiritual bridge between worlds and give strong psychic powers to the bearer. Turquoise is considered to be a symbol of generosity, sincerity, and affection. It preserves friendships and can make friends out of enemies in time. Traditionally is said to only bring good luck if given, not purchased. However, this is not always the case. One must take into consideration the innate energy of each stone individually. 

Healing Properties: Turquoise was part of the medical equipment of most physicians of the fifteenth century; the claim was that this stone could counteract the affects of any poison. A master healer and a stone of yin (feminine) energy, turquoise is most helpful with female disorders. Also used to prevent and cure headaches. A strong stone for toning and strengthening the entire body and regenerating tissue. It's best known for it'sdrawing powers. When pressed against the diseased or troubled portion of the body, the illness is then visualized as being drawn into the stone and out of the body, thus removing it all together. Tradition says that this stone reflect the health of the body and the aura by changing color. 

Magical Properties
Element: Earth
Deities: Hath or, Buddha, The Great Spirit (American Indian)
Powers: Protection, courage, money, love, friendship, healing and luck! Turquoise is used regularly to gain wealth, and it used or worn during money attraction spells. Given as a gift,turquoise bestows wealth and happiness to it's receiver. The stone is also utilized in lovespells and magic. It can be worn, carried or given to a love one. It is frequently used to promote marital harmony. It is told that if the color of the stone fades, so has the love of the recipient. Discharge turquoise once a month in a bowl of dry tumbled hematite stones and recharge overnight among rock crystals - out of the light of the sun! 

Associations:Venus, Neptune Modern Birthstone for the Month of December. Stone of Sagittarius, Pisces,Scorpio and Aquarius, it is a symbol of beauty, virtue and loyalty.

Chakra Classification: Turquoise is particularly effective on the 5th,Throat Chakra. Enhances meditation by helping with creativity, peace of mind, communication and emotional balance. A protecting and balancing stone, turquoise can align the chakras. It gently urges the wearer to seek out answers and knowledge. 



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