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CORAL
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Nature of Material: coral is an organic material; it is the remains of a colony of tiny marine animals; chemical composition of coral is principally CaCO3 (in the form of calcite) 

Appearance: Semi translucent to opaque light pink to dark red, orange, white and cream colors; occasionally blue or purple
Phenomena: none
 
Variety and Trade Names
Angel’s skin - light vivid pink; also called pelle d’angelo 
Bianco - white 
Rosa pallido - light pink 
Rosa vivo - medium pink 
Rosso - red 

Rosso scuro - dark red; also called ox blood 
Carbonetto - darkest red; also called arciscuro 
Ox blood - dark red 
Japanese coral - pink with white centers 
Tosa coral - average quality Japanese coral 
Moro coral - fine quality, light purplish red Japanese coral 
Italian coral - good quality white to red
 
Sardinian coral - excellent quality and very hard 
Sicilian coral - inferior quality 
Algerian coral - less valuable gem quality


Misnomers
polypite 
Typical Size Range: large pieces are available 
Typical Cutting Styles: carvings, cabochons, beads, polished and drilled branch segments strung as necklaces 
 
 
 
Identification
Optic Character: AGG, if not opaque 
Refractive Index: 1.486-1.658 
Birefringence: .172 
Pleochroism: none 

Ultraviolet Fluorescence
White - inert to weak to strong bluish white (LW and SW) Light and dark orange, red and pink - inert to orange to pinkish orange (LW and SW) 
Dark red - inert to dull red to purplish red (LW and SW) 
Specific Gravity: 2.65 (±.05) 
Polish Luster: waxy to vitreous 
Fracture: splintery to uneven 
Luster: dull 
Cleavage: none 

Identifying Characteristics
cavities from polyps, wavy fibrous structure, high spot birefringence 
Hardness: 3½ to 4 
Toughness: fair 

Market
Availability: plentiful 
Public Recognition: well-known 
Major Sources: Australia, Philippines, Japan, Malaysia, Mediterranean Sea along the coasts of Algeria, France, Italy, Morocco, and Tunisia; Taiwan, US, Ireland 
Recommended Disclosures: Advise when treatment is a possibility. Avoid rough wear, heat and acids.
 
 
 
The Meaning Of Coral

CORAL –THE STONE of women


Coral - Red Coral

A "Woman's Stone". Red Coral quiets the emotions and dispels feelings of despair and despondency. It encourages a passionate energy, and stimulates and strengthens female reproductive organs through tissue regeneration. This stone relates well to the Spleen meridian for blood circulation, and to purification of the kidneys and bladder. Red Coral is considered to be "The Blood of Mother Earth" by Native Americans and is considered particularly precious by Tibetan women for menstruation and fertility. Coral may not be seen as a real gem by some, but it has fantastic healing qualities. The coral is the gemstone of the planet Mars and helps to overcome problems related to this planet. Red coral is useful as jewelry and for pleasing the planet Mars, but the use of white corals is more popular in Bengal, where people also use it for Mars energy. 

One who wears or possesses such coral enjoys good fortune and is never possessed by evil spirits or bothered by ghosts, bad vibrations, nightmares, storms, or lightning. Japa done with a coral mala with 108 beads brings siddhi (power). Some aspects of the Rituals for Wearing a Coral A coral should be bought on a Tuesday when the Moon is in Aries or Scorpio. The coral's weight should be no less than 6 rattikas. The metal used should be a mixture of copper and gold. Coral powder is very good for nursing mothers who become weak during the nursing period. Chief Sources of Coral Coral of the finest quality is obtained in bulk from the coasts of Algeria and Tunisia. Other profitable sites for coral deposits are the coasts of Spain, France, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. Corals are also processed in India.


General Gemstone Details 
Once thought to be a plant, coral has been called the "garden of the sea". The ancient Egyptians placed pieces of coral in tombs as a protection against evil spirits because they believed that each piece truly contained a drop of divine blood. According to Greek mythology, when Perseus chopped off the head of the Gorgon Medusa, some drops of blood splashed into the sea, and thereby solidified into coral. Records dating back thousands of years confirm that coral was used in decorative art objects as well as jewelry. Ancient legends tell us that people once believed that Mars was composed of red coral due to it's striations and colorings. Coral symbolizes joy and happiness; it enables the wearer to enjoy life. 

Scientific Properties: Moh’s Hardness of 3 with a trigonal crystal structure. Carol is created of the skeletal remains of marine animals called coral polyps. These tiny little creatures live in colonies that form branching structures as they grow, eventually forming full coral reefs and atolls. The surface of these branches has a distinctive pattern made by the original animals, either striped like or like wood grain. Most corals (red, pink, white and blue varieties) are made up of calcium carbonate; black and golden corals are made of a hornlike material called conchiolin. Red is the most valuable and has been used for thousands of years in jewelry design. Dull at first, all coral has a vitreous luster once polished but it is quite sensitive to heat and acids and may fade with time. 

Mystical Properties:Since coral is a stone of organic origin, it can be used to reconnect with nature and the variety of it's wonders. Red coral was considered by the Pueblo Indians to be one of the four element stones. Among the Hopi and Zuni, the Road of life is symbolized by four "elements", coral, jet, abalone and turquoise. Coral is said to quiet the emotions and to bring peace to within the self, it facilitates intuition, imagination and visualization. Coral helps one to both understand and use the qualities of the mystic. It can bring one into communication with the Ancient Ones of the world and expedite and accelerate the transfer of knowledge. 

Healing Properties: Coral symbolizes life and blood force energy in many cultures. Dark red coral is used for heating and stimulating the bloodstream. Pink shades restore harmony to the heart. The red or white varieties have long been considered useful in healing mental disease, as well as anemia. It strengthens the circulatory system and the bones of the body. It can be used to stimulate tissue regeneration. 

Magical Properties
Energy: Receptive
Element: Water, A kasha
Deities: Isis, Venus, the Great Mother
Powers: Healing, regulating, agriculture, protection, peace, wisdom Coral has played an important role in the religious an magical rites of many cultures throughout the Pacific Islands. Often placed on graves to guard the deceased, and temples were often built of lava rocks and coral. Because coral is neither a stone nor a plant substance, but the skeletal remains of a sea creature, many people object to it's use in magical rituals. But we've gone beyond the time when we have to sacrifice living things, in this instance coral, to practice magic. An organic material that has washed upon the beach from the sea has not harmed anything. The commercial harvesting of coral is another matter. It is up to each individual to decide if they wish to use commercial coral in their magic. Coral is used quite frequently in magic today. When worn so as to be plainly visible, it is meant to be a protective amulet. Protection from the "evil eye" demons, furies, succubi and incubi among other ills. It guards against accidents, acts of violence, poison, theft, possession and sterility. 


Zodiac
Associations: Venus Coral is not a Traditional Birthstone for the Month Stone of Pisces, to dream of red or pink coral foretells recovery from an illness. Red coral specifically with Scorpio, black with Capricorn and pink with Taurus. 

Chakra Classification:Red coral should be used on the 1st, Root or Base Chakra, black coral on the 3rd, Solar Plexus Chakra, and pink on the 4th, Heart Chakra
 
 
 
Difference Between Coral and Sponges
Superficially, sponges and coral have a lot in common. They both just sit there underwater, filtering food particles, living in large colonies that provide habitats for other animals. Divers know that they come in many beautiful colors. But below the surface, sponges and coral are completely different. Sponges and coral come from different animal phyla, for one. Phyla is the most basic of all animal distinctions, and refers to animals with completely different body plans. 

Sponges are among the most simple of all animals, lacking true tissues, and deterring predators primarily by their lack of nutrition and glass-like shards found in their bodies called spicules. They are covered in little pores lined with cells equipped with flagella, which are both used to circulate water through the sponge and absorb food particles. Sponges are capable of living at any point in the ocean, from just off the shore to 8,500 m (29,000 ft) deep, or more. Sponges are members of phylum Porifera, and their alternate name is "poriferans." 

Corals are cnidarians, related to jellyfish and anemones. More complex than sponges, they have differentiated tissue and a true gut. Corals look like single individuals, but they are in fact huge colonies composed of numerous genetically identical polyps just a few millimeters in diameter. These polyps have stinging tentacles, which is characteristic of cnidarians. Instead of depending on food particles for food, corals get most of their nutrition from symbiotic algae, which give them their color. Corals cannot live as deep as sponges, most being found in the photic zone, where light can reach their algae, but some species are found at depths of 3000 m (9,842 ft). 

Sponges and coral are both members of very early lineages that probably split off from other animals as early as 600 million years ago. For a very long time, it was thought that sponges were the most basal of sponges and coral, but recent genetic studies have indicated that the ancestors of coral, early cnidarians, actually split off from other animals first, and that sponges are likely from a lineage that was secondarily simplified.
 
 
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